Clwyd, Wales, was founded about 1295 as a stronghold for Edward I’s army captain Roger Mortimer, thus becoming one of the great fortresses of Edward’s reign; it is of rectangular, concentric form with walls fifteen feet thick and a massive drum tower at each corner; since 1595 the home of the Myddelton family; conveyed to the National Trust in 1981
Early records identify the castle as ‘Bebbanburgh’, the seat of the kings of Bernicia, besieged twice by the Mercian King Penda. Even 1500 years ago the castle remained impregnable against attack, and had it not been for the capture of the Earl of Northumberland outside of the castle, William the Conqueror may never have taken Bamburgh in 1095. It remained Crown property until 1610, although it had been abandoned long before that time. A battle in 1464 had reduced it to a ruinous state, and natural decay followed with the resulting neglect.